Raisin reflections: the art and the post-humanity - They sell and crucifying childhoods

July 27, 2018

Raising reflections: Art and post-humanity – They Sell Childhood[1]

Magda Salete Vicini – Doctor in Communication and Semiotics (PUC-SP); Master in Education, Art and Cultural History (Mackenzie - SP); with an undergraduate degree in Plastic and Design (UPF- Passo Fundo - RS); Plastic Artist and Lecturer at the University of Western Santa Catarina – Unoesc Xanxerê



In this essay I propose a reflection on the post-humanity concept (Sorgner 2012; Ferrando, 2010; Santaella, 2010) and its relationship with the Brazilian and also others poor countries contexts of social vulnerability, fundamental and social rights and theory of art (Eco, 2003; Wood 2003, Smith, 2006), viewing social art and an aesthetic in this period called post-human. My aim is to focus on the theoretical foundation, proposing the social art which I put my artistic work in, avoiding an analysis of my own artistic production, getting results to be further analyzed for the future artistic production of “They sell childhood” showcases and “Crucifixions of childhoods”.

Key words: Social Art, Post-humanity, Childhoods


Origin of the Reflections

As an artist, professor and researcher, I came in contact with posthumanism aware that this philosophy is latent and in great ferment with proposals, researches, articles, seminars and meetings taking place mainly on the European continent. The fact that posthuman philosophy questions the human supremacy over the other living creatures, animated and unanimated beings, makes you think this would be relevant, on one hand, in geographical and political spaces, in which humans have their basic rights met. On the other hand, adjacent to a postmodern scenario, developing countries, such as Brazil, are far even from meeting basic human rights. These rights, according to the legal literature, aggregate and cover many dimensions of rights, which can currently be called rights of first, second, third dimensions and "new" rights[2]. In this sense, I propose, in this essay, a reflective art that seeks a post-humanity that think about this world we live in, raising the following reflections: How do we think about post-humanity without taking into account the state of need and vulnerability of children in several parts of the world, including Brazil? Which reflections can help us believe in human lives, beings and things, or post-humans that are more sensitive to the Others? In what ways can art help us promote awareness about the Other?

I raise these questions from suggested propositions in the texts of my PhD thesis (2008-2011) and my practice as an artist. In the thesis, I present the concept of Social Sculpture of the German artist Joseph Beuys’s work (1921-1986). Translating it to the Brazilian context and analyzing that, according to Beuys (cited Kuoni, 1993), the Social Sculpture is related to “how we think and talk, to how we mould and shape the world in which we live," always on "continuous processes, in a state of change." This concept permeated Joseph Beuys’s entire production (Bunge, 1998).  He made drawings, sculptures, performances, displays, posters, videos, postcards and objects (multiple, in the artist language). When this artist proposed continuous transformations, there was concern about the transformation of man and his environment, when facing the ontological problems involving politics, history, science, art, ecology and philosophy, among other problems. From these foundations, watching the Brazilian scenario in which we live, I reflected that social inequality among human groups is a factor that has always caused discomfort. Restless to the eyes that are sensitive to the Other, sometimes, it can bring motivation, awareness and solidarity trying to transform this inequality: children and adolescents in social vulnerability, as well as European (mixed or not), cabocla, negro and indigenous ethnicity. Unlike the European scenario lived by Joseph Beuys, our reality in Brazil can offer art oriented to search the transformation of thoughts, words and actions for us to change our reality into concrete attitudes. Given this theoretical and artistic picture, the final translation of the Social Sculpture from Beuys in my thesis was named “OTHERSPEECH/LISTENIMAGE.” On this way, I propose that the thought is not built on written words, but the lived and listened. Otherwise, the words said and the images affect our thought on the want-to-say mode to build a world (VICINI, 2011, p.191). My concern related to the human “being” was created by observing, since my childhood, the cultural differences between human groups themselves, like local inhabitants. It was all about the way that the Kaingangues and Guaranis Indians were seeing by us, Italian, German, Polish and Portuguese emigrants, inhabitants of the city that I live. From that perception, my art grew towards to empirical philosophic questioning about the reality lived in my context and, gradually, looking for comprehension and action that aimed this perception of scientific research on art.

Humanism and posthumanism

Upon coming in contact with post-humanist philosophy in Rome [3] (2013), I felt astonished by the fact that we are talking about post-humanity, and yet, this humanity still has many problems to be revised. From that question arose the need to review the fundamental humanism of the fifteenth century, trying to understand their assumptions compared to the recent post-humanism, since humanism was a period of social, political, moral, literary, artistic, scientific and religious changes that did not restrict their possibilities of a new philosophical thought (Reale and Antiseri, 1990, p.16). [4]In Philosophy history:

The term "humanist" was created around the fifteenth century [...] to indicate teachers and lovers of grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy. (Celio and Cicero), "humanitas" meant roughly what the Hellenes indicated with the term "paideia", ie education and training of man. [...] Indeed these are disciplines that study the peculiarities of the man, regardless of any pragmatic utility. Always essentially taking Classical, Latin and Greek culture as spiritual and cultural sources. (Reale and Antiseri, 1990, p.17).

From my viewing point, the meaning of this term is full of notions of self-becoming and discovering, as the improvement of the thought and the man´s life from scientific and philosophical knowledge of classical culture[5], and also the inherent curiosity and the perception of that time man, 15th and 16th century. To Garin[6]  (apud Reale and Antiseri, 1990, p.23), humanism "meant time and memories, sense of human creation, earthly work and responsibility."

To understand the definition of post-human, I present three authors who are currently researching this concept. First, the Brazilian researcher Santaella (2010), which defines: “the concept of post-human, along with other similar concepts, arose concurrently with the emergency of the digital revolution and cyber culture. It is a concept that has sought to address the dilemmas that the interfaces between humans and intelligent machines are bringing to physiology, ontology and epistemology of the human”.

However, to the German philosopher Stefan Lorenz Sorgner, this concept is more objective, clarifying the concern of what he determines as cultural and philosophical movement, which antagonizes the anthropocentrism currently experienced in most countries of the world, and rejects the transcendental, in favor of the immanentism (SORGNER & GRIM, 2012, p.11).

Post-humanism is a philosophical and cultural movement that is grounded in philosophical foundations of continental Europe and the context of literature and Anglo-American culture, and is closely linked to postmodernity, because it is its immediate consequence. In contrast to post-modernity, which is based primarily on perspectivism, post-humanism combines perspectivism with an affirmation of naturalism, materialism, and other type of immanentism. Postmodernists claim that all perspectives are interpretations and deposit that insight to various fields of speech and aspects of life in the world. Posthumanists agree with this insight. However, they also say that while immanentism is an interpretation, it is more likely to be followed, because it does not depend on metaphysical entities of two worlds which we are not yet able to have an in-depth comprehension. (SORGNER & GRIMM, 2012, p.12)

The authors keep away transcendentalism, promoting naturalism in its explanation of physical phenomena, and in this sense, I propose an aesthetic focused on the social phenomenon. This social phenomenon of Brazilian and others countries social vulnerability is a result of failure of human action over the superstructure power. If the aesthetics of our post-human time is digital, it promotes a perfect picture of reality, but without losing touch with the cultural and inherent transcendental side of the post-human.

Beginning a reflection about humanism and post-humanism, I realize that, situated in the Renaissance, humanism is based on the texts of classical antiquity, with the humans ability to question, implement and aim the lived world. And, at the present time - the post-human - I believe we can see the possibility and re-think the human responsibilities and the autopoiesis from Maturana (1995, 2001) discovery; as well as Feyerabend’s[7] ‘Against Method’ (1924-1994) towards the rationalism, positivism, inductivism, the mythological, the intuitive, human methodological anarchy latter review. I do not intend to analyze these theories, but to situate their authors as milestones of science transformation, characterizing my proposal to discuss post-humanity revisiting the way in which thought and human actions can be considered nowadays, focusing on art as social perception: Social Art in this movement called post-human.

To address the need of considering social differences experienced at that moment sometimes inflexible and insensitive towards the Other, and often to an extraordinary adaptation between man and cybernetic technologies, which initially characterized the post-human concept, I present some definitions that outline this term. For example, the notions of post-human and post-humanist, in which the first definition applies “a wide range of studies, including robotics, nanotechnology and bioethics." and the post-humanist definition as "a change in humanist paradigm and its anthropocentric ideology" (FERRANDO, 2012, p.10).

I understand that both terms suggest that we overcome the notion of humanism. I believe this overcoming of humanism could also be aimed to an overcoming of humanist "failures", not only in its anthropocentric, technological and environmental relation, but also in a social and cultural relationship with art as a propeller of a new aesthetic.

 In the post-humanism methodological proposal, Ferrando’s (2012) perception alludes to the ambiguity between internal essentialisms named resistant and hegemonic. The first deals with the radicalism by which minorities (racial, religious, homosexual, etc.) separate themselves into groups; and the hegemonic essentialism, in which, for example, white writers always approach quotes from other whites. In post-humanist theory and practice, one has to consider the production of knowledge in all geographical and intellectual centers, emphasizing all the differences between human groups, avoiding any kind of separation or privileges between them.[8]  Haraway also proposes a reflection on feminist issues in their essence:

The theoretical and practical struggle against unity-through-domination or against the unity-through-incorporation undermines, ironically, not only the justifications for patriarchy, colonialism, humanism, positivism, essentialism, scientism and other "isms", but also all claims for an organic or natural standpoint. I think radical and socialist-Marxist feminisms have also undermined their/our own epistemological strategies and that this is a valuable step in imagining possible political units. The question is whether there is any "epistemology" in the Western sense that might help us in the task of building effective affinities. (Haraway, 2003 apud THOMAS, p.51)

I understand that philosopher Haraway also proposes a plurality of perceptions that do not segregate the natural condition of "being" part of different groups of race, gender, or any other form of identity formation. The social conditions in third world countries, as in the case of Brazil, deserve a look which art can trigger once it can demonstrate a shift to "beyond" humanism that failed to promote "life" with dignity, and it is striking in a large part of our population.[9]

If humanism had its foundations, in the sense of human life and in the man-made culture, post-humanism considers the pursuit of the pragmatic appropriation present in the cyborg (Haraway cited Tomaz, 2000) fundamental, on the planet, in the universe, in living beings, and not the subjectivity and pragmatism of man himself. Anthropocentrism, which in the eyes of this movement, did not lead the planet to good results in the relationship between man, environment and everything that promotes the sustainability of human beings.

The cyborg imagery can suggest a way out of the maze of dualisms through which we have explained our bodies and our tools to ourselves. This is not the dream of a common language, but of a powerful and infidel heteroglossia. It is the imagination of a feminist speaking in tongues to strike fear into the circuits of supersavers of the right. It means both building and destroying machines, identities, categories, relationships, space stories. Though they are both bound in the spiral dance, I would rather be a cyborg than a goddess. (Haraway, apud TOMAZ, 2000, p.99)

Introducing the reflection on feminist action that Haraway presents in the conclusion of her book "Cyborg Manifesto," In this author’s vision , I see a chance to unveil the "super saviors" between the good and the evil of a social reality that requires the destruction, construction and transformation of an Other social art.

When I discovered the depth and intellectual immanence, the philosophical and ontological significance of this movement and post-human philosophy, especially in Europe, I saw the paradox faced in our country: yes, we live in a post-human moment, but we have absences of fundamental  and social 'human' rights. From there, I started this article and my artistic proposal for the year of 2014.

The Art         

In the context of art, I see with the vanguards, previous to 1945, the landscape of art expressed as incompleteness, complexity and transformations that the languages ??of art position what is now called contemporary art, showing us that contemporary is open, interlocked in their artistic languages ??(ECO, 2003). From 1960, Umberto Eco (2003) shows us his vision of the assumptions that anticipated the opening of the artwork to the world lived by the artist. Considering science, communication and contemporary art in itself, as an open work, decentralized from its critical and historical representation: the artist, his technical requirements, aesthetic, giving way to the reality experienced, to experimentation, opening our eyes to the process and not only for the search of an expected outcome. Wood (2002, p.27), references that in this period, relating to conceptual art, the aesthetics didn´t necessarily need to be discussed, "remaining within brackets" because one of the main issues was "related to who was responsible for deciding whether something was an art work or not, if they had or not an aesthetic value”. In this way, we see that the criticism and the aesthetic lose the sense of absolute truth and we find truths interpreted by reading the art world and the artist; and later by reading the public´s world, the system and the history of art. Moreover, in my understanding, this multiplicity of knowledge has shown us a path of meanings that we can conceptualize and reflect art from the hermeneutic philosophy, establishing art as a game (Gadamer, 1997), considering the work, the world, subjectivity and the viewer. [10]

             The epistemology of art has expanded, opening spaces, among various artistic trends to what Lucie-Smith (2006) calls "Globalization and engaged Art"[11], noting that this artistic movement sees itself as "spokesperson of groups that in some way, consider themselves disadvantaged”. Citing among the proposals, the defense of African art by African-American artists; feminist art; political art; gay rights; defense of local minorities (globalization ); Aboriginal art among others. In this artistic and aesthetic direction, I want to mention the relevance of reviewing what Joseph Beuys proposed as Social Art:

The social artist will occupy more than any other active person, one level above that of feeling full field of consciousness, in which paths of reasoning in logical steps should always be covered again under a respective clear control regime, to find the correct concept, to make it a spiritual reality in thought and then translate it in the act (Beuys, apud BUNGE, 1993, p.36).

If Joseph Beuys thought of art as a form of transformation of man and society, his social position was clearly facing a democracy, as indicated in much of his artistic production, finding a path between the Eastern and Western systems, capitalism and communism or socialism. His political attitude aimed at reasoning and attitude, based on the concept of Social Sculpture.


Post-humanism: social art for obtaining social rights (second dimension)

            We have the Right to Life, to Liberty; but do we have Right to Safety, Property and Equality? And, in relation to the Rights of Second Dimension: Social rights - education, health, food, housing – do we have access to these rights? And the Rights of Third Dimension that are: “the metaindividual rights, collective and diffuse rights, solidarity rights”? Wolkmer ( 2003 p.9-10) talks from other authors[12], clarifying that these rights "here included rights related to development, peace, self-determination , a healthy environment , quality of life , the right to communicate , etc. " .

            We also have the New Rights, arriving at the fourth and fifth dimensions, involving biotechnology, bioethics, regulation of genetic engineering, cybernetics in general (WOLKMER, 2003).   Without intending to promote a reflection on the "legal jurisprudence” , I suggest that post- humanism in poor countries, is action and reflection, projectivist, which can move towards inclusion of Fundamental and Social Rights [13] in all levels of the population, starting with the Right to education, protected childhood and infrastructure assurance. I'm not suggesting differentiation or exclusion , or even segregating the poor world population or the countries that already have full development of their rights until the fifth or maybe sixth dimension because some layers of our Brazilian society enjoy the previously cited rights: companies, universities, some schools, more financially advantaged families , public and private institutions in all genres. Technologies are necessary for the improvement of life and the universe we live in.

            Thinking about the living conditions of children in many countries leads us to the social and political actions undertaken by agencies, institutions and organizations that operate and promote interference in countries like Brazil, India, Africa, Bolivia, among others, for protection, health care, affection, and education projects, such as UNICEF, UNESCO, UN, "Save the Children", "Child Africa", etc. I see these actions as emergency interferences to save lives. These actions promote, for example, decreased mortality, violence, ignorance and infrastructure of many poor countries. But they are interferences which governments of poor countries “allow " these organizations to develop, providing that there are no interferences in public policies that could definitely solve social, environmental, cultural and human issues. In addition, they can be a way to promote the continuation of poverty and defenselessness of worldwide childhood. This may be the beginning of a global positioning in relation to children and adolescents worldwide.

              My question is obvious: Why there are not sanctions or international policy interventions like agencies, institutions and organizations to ensure the social and fundamental rights for children and adolescents in countries with vulnerable populations?

I propose a reflection on the post-human attitude to promote the improvement of life for children in social, educational, housing, emotional and cultural vulnerabilities, from the title of my recent artistic production (Figures 1 and 2) "They sell Childhood and Childhood Crucifixion.” proposing a social post-human art[14]. Generalizing, the human being is naive when talking about unhide being, society, world; in Heidegger's (2000) language, the image is "unveiled", placed in clear sight, so it is a truth in itself.











Figure 1 –Childhood for Sale – 0,62cm x 0,28cm – Styrofoam, soft, acrylic paint and glass showcase– Magda Vicini - “The right to Life and Joy”

In this production, I tried to work with a material that could welcome and protect childhoods created in acrylic paint. The soft tissue, by the softness and smoothness of touch, could be the perfect cover to house children and adolescents. To keep the heat of the soft tissue that heats these childhoods, chose the Styrofoam, for its thermal and light feature, seemed to be the ideal material, and remember the concept of Social Sculpture of Joseph Beuys (heat that causes transformations). And to isolate these from any type of childhood violence or aggression, glass case as isolation means, and at the same time as a way to display the conceptual childhood to sale. Tags with the selling prices of each childhood by designer Bianca Vicini Bonotto were created.











Figure 2 –Human anti-image – Childhood crucifixion[15] – acrylic paint, no paper


This artistic action arose out of contact with children and adolescents who participate in workshops sponsored by a group of volunteers, coordinated by a catholic institution to which I belong. Among many of the issues that I have been reflecting ever since I met these children and adolescents, the importance of childhood in our lives, in the lives of all people is the issue that stands out. There is no possibility of repairing the childhood that is exchanged for early maturity, emotional disturbances, cognitive problems or life itself.

Figure 3 – A detail of the work: There´s a price tag for each childhood: “Right to life and joy”





Figure 4 – Anti-image Childhood Crucifixion

There is no way to purchase or to relive a childhood. There is no measurement of the value that could promote a meaning, a definition, a replacement or an exchange of such childhoods, even though being a period of hardship - structural and emotional - for some of these children and adolescents. I believe that if Brazilian, African, Bolivians among others countries children had guaranteed their right to education, protected childhood and infrastructure to "dwell" (Heidegger, 1951), emotionally, physically and morally, they would not need to go through moments of absolute deprivation, physical, sexual and psychological violence, as they are currently experiencing. Let us quote some information about the conditions of childhood:

Violence is an important public health issue in itself, directly affecting millions of people each year. For example, as cited in the study by the UN´s General- Secretary on Violence Against Children, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 53, 000 children are murdered every year, and that the prevalence of forced sexual intercourse and other forms of sexual violence involving touching, among boys and under 18 girls is 73 million (or 7 %) and 150 million (or 14 %), respectively.[16]

The National Survey of School Health - PENSE, conducted in 2012 with 9th graders of elementary school, reveals disturbing data regarding violence committed against teenagers. The survey collected data on various characteristics of aggression: verbal, physical, symbolic violence, perpetrated by classmates, and relatives by using melee weapons or fire arms.

“In 2010 alone, according to the survey “Map of Violence " , 2012 edition , 24 children and adolescents ( aged 1-19 years) were killed per day. Of the surveyed students, 10.6% stated that recently suffered physical abuse by adults in the family. With respect to involvement in fights with weapons, 7.3% of students were involved in fights with melee weapon and 6.4 % with a firearm. The verbal abuse suffered at school were also surveyed, 35.4 % of students have felt humiliated by the taunts of classmates. However, 20.8% of students said they had already humiliated and hurt some of their colleagues. [17]

 “The facts are there. This terrible conflict is affecting 2.3 million children. Children are being killed because they are Christian or Muslim. Children are being forced to flee their homes and hide to avoid the attacks. Children are witnessing an enormous violence, they are being recruited by armed groups - possibly more than 6,000 ... These brutal attacks are an affront to humanity“.[18]

Sexual violence is the second most common type of violence against children from birth to nine years of age. With 35 % of reports, it is second only to neglect and abandonment (36%). Preliminary figures are part of a new survey released on Tuesday by the Ministry of Health, based on data from the Surveillance Violence and Accidents (VIVA) system. According to VIVA, 14.625 notifications of domestic violence, sexual and other physical assaults on children under ten were recorded in 2011.


There is a new aesthetic/philosophy of art, the relationship between living beings, human beings, social behavior and the law, in line with research and technology, biotechnology and genetic resources. I propose that this aesthetic can also turn to social post-human, in favor of life with better conditions for "being" post-human, meeting the Social Rights for children and teens of the 21st century: They sell Childhood and Childhood crucifixion. TALKING/LISTENING to the Other, the awareness of the Other that I seek in this motion is related to “human failures” that can be reviewed in this post-human moment: the lack of social rights to Childhood (Figure 5).

The sensitivity called “Aisthesis” seems to be relevant and necessary to human relationships, the organization of the living, the organization of the machines[19], to the Other. In this respect the cyborg proposal can help us reflect with Haraway:

The cyborg imagery can help express two crucial arguments in this essay. Firstly, the production of a universal, totalizing theory is a major mistake that leaves to grasp - probably always, but certainly now - most of reality. Secondly, taking responsibility for the social relations of science and technology means refusing one ant science metaphysics a demonology of technology, and thus embracing the skillful task of reconstructing the boundaries of daily life, in partial connection with others, in communication with all our parts. (Haraway, apud TOMAZ, 2009 p.98-99)

Responsibility for diversity, difference, and the potential instability that involves the social being is a task that humanism could not resolve. This is why the post-human perception methodology aims not to segregate or to hegemonize (Ferrando, 2012) the so-called social minorities or majorities but rather sees them as part of this universe, with rights and differences, avoiding segregation (racial, feminist, etc.) that separates human beings, living beings, technology, and the universe with each other and ourselves.

Figure 5 – Anti-Image – Childhood’s Crucifixion – Magda Vicini

The Counter-image we see the mind of the digital lens and post-human eye, we can see the reality: children and adolescents are crucified daily, and lose their childhoods and lifes daily. “Queer worlding requires us to re-think our relationship with nature beyond separation, improvement and/or protection” (Taylor & Blaise, 2014, Refer to Haraway, 2008).

[1]  This article: “Raising reflections: The Art and the posthumanity - They sell childhoods” presented on 6th Conference Beyond Humanism: Posthuman Politics, Greece, Mytilini – September, 26, 2014 at Eagean University.

[2] Wolkmer (2003).

[3]    The Posthuman-Rome, 11-14 SEPT. 2013. 5th Beyond Humanism Conference.

[4]  We speculate that, similarly, posthumanism, intends a reflection that aims to reach all areas of knowledge, thinking the posthumanity.

[5]    P.O. Kristeller (1905 – 1999). To Kristeller, in order to understand humanism, " it would be necessary to devote attention to the Aristotelian tradition " (apud Reale and Antiseri, 1990, p.23);

[6]  Eugênio Garin (1909-2004), Italian philosopher, historian and philologist.

[7]  The philosopher Francesca Ferrando proposes that the Feyerabend methodology "Against Method" approaches the methodology of posthumanism (2012, p.11).

[8]   FERRANDO (2012, p. 13 a 17).

[9]  In this essay, I will not go through the issues on childhood in the so called countries of the "first world".

[10]    Apud Vicini, 2011 – PhD thesis (PUC – SP), p.119.

[11]  We must remember that the 1950 period , the movement of the Mexican muralists : Rivera and Siqueiros , as well as aspects of Latin American art involving plastic arts , cinema , theater , were raised by Néstor García Canclini (1984 ) in his book " The socialization of art " , which emphasizes the characteristics of a Social Art .

[12]  LAFER, Celso (1998); BONAVIDES, Paulo (1997); BEDIN, Gilmar A. (1998) and SARLET, Ingo W. (1998).

[13] According to Bonavides and Ramos ( apud Wolkmer , 2003 , p.6 ) : According to the latest doctrine , some authors tend to distinguish the name of " human rights " ( rights on a global level ) of " fundamental rights " (rights protected and enshrined in the constitution of a country ) [ ... ] . Fundamental rights can be understood as human rights, legal and institutionally guaranteed and limited in space and time [...] in force in each state thus describes.

[14] In the current sense of post-human art, intending to identify the art produced in the posthuman movement in the Brazilian context, I think of artists who develop their works from digital, biological and transgenic art as Eduardo Kac, a Brazilian residing in Chicago (USA) and artist and scholar Diana Domingues. Both artists and art theorists of art as a human/human, technologies/human, technologies/living beings, that represent, among others, our stage of posthuman art.

[15] I would like to leave registered that my perception and production on the crucified children occurred prior to know the production of the photographer Erik Ravelo. The photographer Erik Ravelo had created for the Unhate Foundation Protecting Childhood sponsored by Benetton the series “Los Intocables”, which translates to “The Untouchables” in English and highlights some of the biggest issues threatening the well-being children across the world, issues that adults are to blame for. Available at Accessed on: 05/02/2015.

[16] Available at: Acessed in August/2014.

[17] Child abuse, a sad reality -10/10/2012 Available at: Accessed on: 03/30/2014.

[18] Available at: Accessed on 04/14/2014.

[19] (Maturana e Varella) ROMESÍN and GARCÍA (1997).




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